*6L6GC LTspice model based on the generic tetrode/pentode model from Adrian Immler, version i3f, Jan. 2020
*i3f means FIXED i3 version. The model works now also for selfbiased stages, cathode followers and the like.
*A version log is at the end of this file
*Params fitted to the GE datasheet by Adrian Immler, October 2019
*The high fit quality is presented at adrianimmler.simplesite.com
*This model is an enhancement of Adrians generic triode model to achieve tetrode/pentode behaviour.
*Hence, it is also suitable when the tetrode/pentode is "triode connected".
*Convenient for power beam as well as for small signal tetrodes/pentodes (just play with radl!).
*
* plate (in this model, "anode" means the internal virtual triode anode)
* | grid2
* | | grid1
* | | | cathode
* | | | |
.subckt 6L6 P G2 G1 K
.params
*Parameters for the space charge current @ Vg <= 0
+ mu1 = 10 ;Determines the voltage gain @ constant Ia
+ rad = 1k21 ;Differential anode resistance, set @ Iad and Vg=0V
+ Vct = 0.97 ;Offsets the Ia-traces on the Va axis. Electrode material's contact potential
+ kp = 38 ;Mimics the island effect
+ xs = 1.4 ;Determines the curve of the Ia traces. Typically between 1.2 and 1.8
*
*Parameters for assigning the space charge current to Ia and Ig @ Vg > 0 and small Va
+ kB1 = 0.10 ;Describes how fast Ia drops to zero when Va approaches zero.
+ radl = 340 ;Differential resistance for the Ia emission limit @ very small Va and Vg > 0
+ tsh = 8 ;Ia transmission sharpness from 1th to 2nd Ia area. Keep between 3 and 20. Start with 20.
+ xl = 1.4 ;Exponent for the emission limit
*
*Parameters of the grid-cathode vacuum diode
+ Rg1i = 40 ;Internal grid1 resistor. Causes an Is reduction @ Ig > 0.
+ kg1 = 930 ;Inverse scaling factor for the Va independent part of Ig (caution - interacts with xg!)
+ Vctg1 = 1.2;Offsets the log Ig-traces on the Vg axis. Electrode material's contact potential
+ xg1 = 1.0 ;Determines the curve of the Ig slope versus (positive) Vg and Va >> 0
+ VT = 0.1 ;Log(Ig) slope @ Vg<0. VT=k/q*Tk (cathodes absolute temp, typically 1150K)
*
*Parameters for the caps
+ cg1p = 0p6 ;From datasheet
+ cg1All= 10p ;From datasheet
+ cpAll = 6p5 ;From datasheet
*
*Parameters to enhance the triode model to a pentode model
+ mu2 = 24 ;1/mu2 is the fraction of Vp which together with Vg2i builds the virtual Triode-Anode Voltage
+ kB2 = 0.25 ;Describes how fast Ip drops to zero when Vp approaches zero.
+ Rg2i = 200 ;Internal grid2 resistor. Causes an Is reduction when Ig2 increases while Vp drops
+ fr2 = 52m5 ;determines the residual ig2 fraction @ high Va values
+ ftfr2 = 1m2 ;if fr2 showes a Vg2 dependancy, this can be considered with this parameter
*
*Parameters to mimic the secondary emission (inspired from Derk Reefmans approach)
+ co = 0.9 ;decribes the crossover region (Ise drop when Va increase). between 0 and 9
+ Vse=65 a=0 ;Va where the sec. emission is strongest. a=related Vg1 coefficient
+ Ise0=2m2 b=0.22m ;sec. emission peak current @ Vg=0. b=related Vg1 coefficient
+ Vg2ref = 250 ;Vg2 where the following coeffficients has no influence to the emission effect:
+ c = 4m ;Vg2 coefficient of a
+ d = 7.7m ;exp Vg2 coefficient of Ise0
+ e = -0.8u ;Vg2 coeff. of b
*
*Calculated parameters
+ Iad = 100/rad ;Ia where the anode a.c. resistance is set according to rad.
+ ks = pow(mu1/(rad*xs*Iad**(1-1/xs)),-xs) ;Reduces the unwished xs influence to the Ia slope
+ ksnom = pow(mu1/(rad*1.5*Iad**(1-1/1.5)),-1.5) ;Sub-equation for calculating Vg0
+ Vg0 = Vct + (Iad*ks)**(1/xs) - (Iad*ksnom)**(2/3) ;Reduces the xs influence to Vct.
+ kl = pow(1/(radl*xl*Ild**(1-1/xl)),-xl) ;Reduces the xl influence to the Ia slope @ small Va
+ Ild = sqrt(radl)*1m ;Current where the limited anode a.c. resistance is set according to radl.
*
*Space charge current model
Bggi GG1i 0 V=v(G1i,K)+Vg0 ;Effective internal grid voltage.
Bahc Ahc 0 V=uramp(v(P,K)/mu2+v(G2i,K)) ;voltage of the virtual triode anode, hard cut to zero
Bst St 0 V=max(v(GG1i)+v(Ahc)/(mu1), v(Ahc)/kp*ln(1+exp(kp*(1/mu1+v(GG1i)/(1+v(Ahc))))));Steering volt.
Bs Ai K I=ft1()/ks*pow(v(St),xs) ;Langmuir-Childs law for the space charge current Is
.func ft1() {1+(1+tanh(4*v(GG1i)))/38} ;Finetuning-function for better overall fit at pos Vg
*
*Anode current limit @ small Va
.func smin(z,y,n) {pow(pow(z+1f, -n)+pow(y+1f, -n), -1/n)} ;Min-function with smooth trans.
Ra A Ai 1
Bpl G2i P I=i(Rp) - smin(1/kl*pow(v(P,K),xl),i(Rp),tsh);Ia emission limit
*
*Grid model
Rg1i G1 G1i {Rg1i} ;Internal grid resistor for "Ia-reduction" @ Vg > 0
.func Ivd(Vvd, kvd, xvd, VTvd) {1/kvd*pow(VTvd*xvd*ln(1+exp(Vvd/VTvd/xvd)),xvd)} ;Vacuum diode function
Bg1vd G1 K I=Ivd(v(G1,K)+Vctg1-1m*sqrt(v(Ahc)), kg1, xg1, VT) ;Grid-cathode vacuum diode
.func ft2() {7*(1-tanh(3*(v(G1,K)+Vg0)))} ;Finetuning-func. improves ig-fit @ Vg near -0.5V, low Va.
Bg1r G1i Ai I=ft1()*ivd(v(GG1i),ks, xs, 0.8*VT)/(1+ft2()+kB1*v(Ahc));Is reflection to grid when Va appr. zero
Bs0 Ai K I=ft1()*ivd(v(GG1i),ks, xs, 0.8*VT)/(1+ft2()) - ft1()/ks*pow(v(GG1i),xs) ;Compensates neg Ia
*@ small Va and Vg near zero
*
*additional model parts necessary for a pentode
Rg2i G2 G2i {Rg2i}
Rp P A 1
Bg2r G2i A I=i(Ra)*((1-frg2())/(1+kB2*max(0,v(P,K))) ) ; Va dependable ig2 part, reflected from the plate
Bg2f G2 A I=i(Ra)*frg2() ; Va independable ig2 part. Not to lead this current over Rg2i improves convergence
.func frg2() {fr2*exp(ftfr2*(v(G2,K)-250))}
*model for secondary emission effect
*nomalizing function nf(sh) ensures that the peak of y=x*(1-tanh(sh(x-1)) is always at x=1 while sh=0..9
.func nf(z) {609m/z + 293m + 107m*z - 5.71m*z*z}
.func sh() {pow(co,2)} ;results in a more linear control of the cross over region with the param co
Bsee G2 P I=Ise()*nf(sh())*x()*(1-tanh(sh()*(nf(sh())*x()-1))) / (nf(sh())*(1-tanh(sh()*(nf(sh())-1))))
.func Ise() {smin(uramp(Isef() - bf()*v(G1,K)),0.98*i(Rp),2)} ;avoides neg. Iplate caused by strong sec. em.
.func x() {v(P,K)/(1m+uramp(Vse-af()*v(G1,K)))}; moves the sec emission peak to the wanted voltage Vsep
.func af() {a + c*(v(G2,K)-Vg2ref)}
.func Isef() {Ise0 * exp(d*(v(G2,K)-Vg2ref))}
.func bf() {b + e*((v(G2,K)-Vg2ref))}
*
*Caps
C1 G1 P {cg1p} ;from datasheet
C2 G1 K {cg1All/2} ;most datasheets gives a cap "g1 to all except plate". As this model does not consider the
*heater or the ambient as further electrodes for parasitic caps, best way is to assume this " g1 to all" cap
*as it would be half to cathode and half to g2.
C3 G1 G2 {cg1All/2}
C4 P K {cpAll/2} ;most datasheets gives a cap "plate to all except g1". As this model does not consider the
*heater or the ambient as further electrodes for parasitic caps, best way is to assume this " plate to all" cap
*as it would be half to cathode and half to g2.
C5 P G2 {cpAll/2}
.end
*
*Version log
*i1 :Initial version
*i2 :Pin order changed to the more common order "P G2 G1 K" (Thanks to Markus Gyger for his tip)
*i3 :residual ig2 @ large Va introduced; 2nd emission effect introduced; Va indep. grid current parts no longer lead over internal grid resistors for better convergence
* i3f : Major Bug Fixed. Some Grid/Plate voltages has been refered to GND instead of cathode