Leo Fender crafted guitar amplifier masterpieces without the assistance of computers, software or the Internet... In 1959 "graphical methods" meant drawing Bode plots with a pencil and ruler... Times have changed. ● Master the basics ● Design your amp ● Know it works Amp Design for the 21st Century

Amp Books Tutorials

Visualizing Basic Concepts

Electric Charge and Electric Current
Is plate current measured in "milliamps" or "milliamperes?" You decide!

Work, Voltage, and Power
How much work is required to carry a Twin Reverb around the block? The answer may surprise you!

How Vacuum Tube Triodes Work
Thomas Alva Edison was working to improve the incandescent light bulb and made a shocking discovery even he could not explain!
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How Vacuum Tube Pentodes Work
The truth revealed! Why most designers prefer triodes for their preamps but insist on multi-grids when they need raw power.

Georg Simon Ohm's Law
"According to Ohm's Law" is the most ubiquitous phrase in electronics today - find out why!

The Voltage Divider
Divide and conquer! A simple solution for inter-stage coupling, volume controls, feedback loops, tone stacks, attenuators, and so much more!
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The Current Divider
Add this to your toolbox! Insiders say it holds the key to unraveling the truth about Marshall JCM 800 grid-stopper resistors.

Gustav Robert Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
With one simple loop you can determine the DC grid bias for the Ampeg B-42-X first stage - we show you how!
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Gustav Robert Kirchhoff's Current Law
Trapped in a bunch of loops? Try nodes instead!